Definis Media - Said mass media came from the medium and the masses, the word "medium" comes from the Latin word which indicates the existence of various means or channels that are applied to communicate ideas, images, feelings, and that substantially all of the means of mental activity of man, the word "mass "derived from the Anglo-Saxon meaning an instrument or tool that is essentially directed to all who have the nature of the massif. His job is in accordance with the circulation of messages or news, presents a new type of communications in accordance with the fundamental needs of society today.
The mass media is a remarkable discovery technology, which allows people to conduct communication not only with the communicant that may never be seen but also generations to come. Thus, the mass media can overcome the barriers in the form of restrictions held by time, place and geographical conditions. Thereby enabling the use of mass media communication with the number of people more.
Each type of media has the properties typical therefore its use should also be taken into account in accordance with abilities and their particular features.
In terms of technological development in the field of delivery of information through the mass media, the mass media can be divided into two types:
a. Modern mass media
The definition of modern mass media is media that uses modern technology namely mass media print and electronic mass media. Print media is media that convey information must first be printed using printing equipment. The mass media such as newspapers, magazines, tabloids etc.
Electronic mass media are media that convey information using electrical services listrik.Tanpa the mass media will not be able to function for example, radio and television.
b. Traditional mass media
The media are used as a means of delivering information in earlier times, more use of traditional mass media for example puppets, comedy, lenong, traditional arts etc.
Mass Media Functions
The mass media independently or only as a support has the following functions;
a. As a conduit of information
Can be done alone by the media is impossible without media information can be conveyed accurately without time-bound.
b. As the decision-making
In this case the mass media act as a support for this function requires discussion groups that will make the decision in addition to the expected change in attitude of trust social norms. Therefore, in this case the mechanism of inter-personal communication plays an important role. Mass media plays a role in delivering information as a discussion, clarify issues and to convey messages of community leaders.
c. As educators
Most can be carried out by the mass media, while the other part is combined with interpersonal communication (Eduard D, 1978: 47). According Chalkley mass media serves to:
Reported about the facts of economic life of society,
Interpret these facts in order to be understood by the public,
Promoting it in order to realize how serious construction problems encountered and further thinking about these issues and deliver community on solutions that may be adopted.
According to Crawford role of mass media in development are not independent in nature but rather limited as a driver of development if other factors are adequately. This shows the communication alone is not a sufficient condition for development but the lack or failure of communication may hinder development. So communication alone will not produce optimal development (Department of Education, 1997: 4)
In addition to having the functions of the mass media can also do other things that can play a role in serving the development tasks include:
1. The mass media can expand the horizons of thought
Many people who live in traditional societies considered as if the media has magical powers when first introduced to the mass media. An African leaders say that the media has supernatural powers, because the media is able to bring a person to the top of a high hill without crossing the horizon. Media have supernatural powers because of its ability to make people see and know the places that had never seen and about the people who had never met. Thus the media is able to bring together a great distance and clarify things that blur and bridge the transition between traditional society towards the modern society.
2. The mass media can focus an perhati
In modern society, our picture of a remote environment, we get from the media. Traditional societies are moving towards modernization also began to rely on the knowledge of the mass media. As a result, thinking about what is important, dangerous, interesting and so is generally derived from the mass media. Newspapers, radio and TV to act as watchdogs in various places have to decide what is appropriate for broadcast.
3. The mass media is able to raise aspirations.
The mass media is able to foster aspiration as stated by Daniel Lerner when Cairo radio to reach remote villages through personal aspirations grown almost the whole idea can be realized because of support from the community.
A new policy will require correspondence between what people want with what they earn. Without aspiration increased without inducing people to work for a better life will work hard to realize development.
4. The mass media are able to create an atmosphere to build
We can conclude that through the role of the media to spread outside the classroom as an educational tool. In places where schools and teachers are scarce in number, the media has proven its ability to bear most of the tasks of education, especially in the field of education of adults and literacy. The mass media is a communication tool that can serve to motivate the need for community participation in development. Hence the delivery of information, ideas, innovations and opinion, mass media try to give motivation to communicant so that the changes themselves. For the mass media should pay attention to the following;
Message or invitation submitted must be able to generate a certain feeling in the community;
Message or invitation that should contain symbols or signs of communication in accordance with perception, absorptive capacity and power value of most people especially the targeted segments of society;
Message or invitation that evoke specific needs and desires of the target and then suggest an attempt to fulfill the expectations of society;
The message gave hope communicant.
Thus the message delivered to the communicant to provide motivation to participate or to change themselves.
In relation in particular to the environment, based on papers Koesnadi Hardjasoemantri entitled "The Role of Environmental Law in order Future of Indonesia", the mass media is one of the environmental advocates in raising public environmental awareness. The role of the mass media itself is as a means of socialization of legislation that related to the environment with the aim that people understand their rights and obligations Forms of socialization is the holding section periodically for print media, for example, every month, on environmental regulations, as well as media elektronikanya, including radio, through regular events, such as every month, on environmental regulations life.
Mass Media in Development
The role of mass media in national development is as a reformer agent (agent of social change) or helping to introduce social change. In this case the mass media can be used to stimulate the process of decision making, introduce modernization efforts and help speed up the transition process of traditional society into a modern society and deliver on community development programs nationwide.
The process of change can run slowly or quickly as ditujukkan by history. Contacts between different cultures give rise to changes in habits and confidence gradually. Changes can also occur rapidly when the nation conquerors imposing their cultural patterns on the defeated nation.
The type of change desired by the majority of nations is more rapid change than the change history, softer than processes are carried out coercion. Construction is expected implemented voluntary and individuals can take part in it and received information about the construction evenly. Attitude force in development is replaced by attitudes persuade and give an opportunity to the participation of every member of society in addition to enhanced information flow. There is a 3-dimensional effect of mass communication, namely:
Cognitive include awareness of additional learning and knowledge
Affective associated with emotions, feelings and atitud (attitude)
Connotative related to the behavior and intentions to do things in a certain way.
Although the dimensions of the effects in contact with each other they also get each other they occur in a variety of sequences and changes in one dimension does not need to be followed by changes in other dimensions as the form of increased knowledge about an issue is not always followed by a change (Amri Jahi 1988: 17)
Basically a simple mechanism of a change in its nature. First, people must be made aware of the significance of a change that can not be realized by relying on habits and attitudes now. Second, it must be supported by a change in attitudes in close proximity to the business needs. Every nation that wants to improve the development process of the entire community must be aware of the importance of development and provide opportunities for them to meet their needs in the sphere of development. Besides facilitating the decision making process and help people get to know new habits seamlessly so they quickly feel the results.
Indeed, we must admit that in the New Order era, the role of mass media is very big but still have weaknesses in supporting the implementation of nation and state, namely;
Infrastructure and facilities that used the mass media would be meaningless if the intended audience can not receive the messages conveyed by the development because of the limited range of media and mass media ownership limitations.
The diversity of languages used as medium of instruction in a region. This is an obstacle in the effort to reach more people who can receive useful information in the development effort.
Communities that receive the information are very diverse levels of education and atitudnya so. message development should be delivered by the mass media is formed in such a way that it becomes easy to understand that it may cause atitud and behavioral changes,
Thus in principle we can deduce the mass communication media role in development, namely; The mass media stimulate decision-making process.
The mass media can introduce modernization efforts with the aim of changing habits, attitudes, mindset ugly to be good.
The mass media as a means of delivering on community development programs nationwide (Eduard D, 1978).